Fuel-and-energy Complex Ecologization Actions

Among the FEC ecologization tasks, top priority is given to the following:

  • improvement of the quality of coal fired by TPP, gradual implementation of modern heat-and-power generation technologies, including the cogeneration ones, equipment of the FEC companies with efficient emission/ discharge control systems to trap (reduce) the contaminating agents released to atmosphere, etc.;
  • increase in efficiency in degassing of coal mines to minimize the risks of gas inflows in the underground mine zones, and take preventive actions against gas-triggered accidents in the zones;
  • prevention of inflammation in rock piles and dumps by covering them with inert materials, reclamation the sites etc.;
  • use of water from water reservoirs for eligible purposes only, and prevention of thermal and chemical pollution of the surface and underground water by means of significant reduction of thermally and chemically polluted discharges from industrial facilities through improvements of production technologies, water supply and wastewater purification systems using environmentally safe filters, adsorption materials, reagents;
  • implementation of modern water demineralization technologies to process highly mineralized mine water, and introduction of sound regulations and procedures as to discharges of slightly mineralized mine water in rivers and water reservoirs; prevent discharges of polluted drainage water saturated with toxic agents from waste rock piles into rivers, water reservoirs and underground water-bearing beds;
  • prevention of natural landscapes deterioration and contamination of land surface by solid wastes from the coal production/ processing and by ash dumps produced by the coal-fired boiler plants and TPPs;
  • ensuring nuclear and radiation safety at the nuclear-power-generation facilities;
  • elimination or minimization of losses of primary energy (coal, oil, gas etc.) in their production, processing, transportation and consumption processes through the use of modern energy saving technologies and equipment, good sealing of the corresponding facilities and devices of transportation systems and vehicles etc.;
  • reduction of the negative impacts of certain agents, used or produced in production processes, such as drilling mud etc., on the environment;
  • development of efficient technical devices and management tools to liquidate the negative effects of accidents and disasters at the energy facilities;
  • development and implementation of permanent monitoring tools and systems to keep track of environmental indicators from FEC companies;
  • development of the alternative and renewable sources of energy;
  • reduction of the energy consumption by production facilities and efficient energy conservation.

Total dust emissions to the atmosphere by heat-and-power generation sector are expected to be reduced by 85.5% by 2030, nitrogen oxide emissions and sulfur oxide emissions will go down by 30.5% and 70%, respectively, at the same time, fuel consumption will rise by 85.9%. The ash-and-slag dumps recycling ratio will come up to the level of 80% to 90%. The specific ratio of greenhouse gas emissions (to the unit of GDP) will significantly fall down, which will allow the companies to have these emissions modestly increased to 131.4 mln tons of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2010, 140.6 mln tons in 2015, 152.6 mln tons in 2020 and 179.6 mln tons in 2030.

The above greenhouse gas emission levels in Ukraine are notably lower than those for the year of 1990 (a base year under the Kyoto Protocol), and this fact gives an excellent opportunity for Ukraine to benefit from projects of joint implementation and emission quota trade.

The above radical changes in permissible amounts of environment-polluting emissions call for prudent policy as to practical application of more strict environmental requirements, environmental duties and penalties to avoid the situations when energy companies are physically unable to comply with the new environmental regulations. In this case, the need to pay penalties for the failure to comply with the strict environmental regulations may undermine the successful commercial activity of many Ukrainian energy companies and their competitive positions or trigger price rises for their products, and these negative consequences may result in heavy social and economic losses. Therefore, the revision of the existing environmental requirements will be implemented in a phased manner and in harmony with the relevant internationally accepted standards.

The energy sector ecologization challenges will require adequate financial support for implementation of relevant initiatives on the national and local levels, necessary research activities, scientific, engineering and design works, pilot projects to develop and implement new technologies, and production of domestic industrial equipment, machinery and mechanisms.

The above initiatives will be partially funded by earnings from the environmental duties and penalties for contamination of the environment; payments for supplies of fuel-and-energy resources; and for the account of flexible mechanisms for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as provided by the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Frame Convention on Climatic Changes, including trade in quotas for greenhouse gas emissions and joint implementation projects.

To provide for adequate environmental protection and create acceptable and safe living conditions for local residents, a set of management, engineering, technical and other measures are envisaged by programs of the Fuel-and-Energy Complex development (in thermal/ nuclear/ hydropower generation and coal, oil and gas industries) to prevent possible technogenic disasters, with an appropriate financial support. This requires strict compliance with the relevant regulations and provisions in the process of designing, construction and rehabilitation of the Fuel-and-Energy Complex facilities, with good assessment of the permissible environmental impacts, regimes of the natural reserves utilization and protection and monitoring of negative FEC facilities impacts on the environment.

Efficient trade of emission quotas, as well as green certificates and special tariffs that will be developed and implemented through special programs and initiatives under the Energy Strategy will support the implementation of up-to-date environment-sensitive technologies in the energy sector as required by the Green Book.

Special attention will be given to the efforts to ensure broad public awareness of the energy saving initiatives and public support to the ecologically acceptable policy of national energy sector development which shall inspire legislative and executive bodies to make and fulfill corresponding decisions.